Editor’s Choice: “Aquascaping”
Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. It builds on the strengths and history of reclamation practice. The second division is landscape design more focused on the design of individual landforms to reliably meet the goals as set out in the closure planning process. It builds on the strengths and history of reclamation practice. Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the Earth's surface and is similarly used by Urban Planners, Geographers, Forestry and Natural Resources professionals, etc.
Factors in designing include objective qualities; such as the climate and microclimates; topography and orientation, site drainage and groundwater recharge; municipal and resource building codes, soils and irrigation, human and vehicular access and circulation, recreational amenities (i.e.: sports and water), furnishings and lighting, native plant habitat botany when present, property safety and security, construction detailing, and other measurable considerations. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the Earth's surface and is similarly used by Urban Planners, Geographers, Forestry and Natural Resources professionals, etc. There can be significant overlap of talents and skills, depending on the education, licensing, and experience of the professional. The practical, aesthetic, horticultural, and environmental sustainability components merit Landscape design inclusion.
Though landscape engineering embodies all elements of traditional engineering (planning, investigation, design, construction, operation, assessment, research, management, and training), it is focused on three main areas. Some scholars consider Downing to be The Father of American Landscape Architecture, although others choose Frederick Law Olmsted.